Toxicology is a term used in the science of poisons and the study of adverse effects of chemical agents upon living organisms. The basic of the word Toxic comes from the Latin toxicus (translated poisonous), derived from ancient Greek word toxikon (to describe an arrow dipped in poisons). The biological effect of toxic chemicals in species is the core of toxicology (petite micro or macromolecules, For example, proteins and biomolecule. Toxicology evolved over the millennia from observation of animals, plants and known by primitive tribes as both healing effects and the adverse, extracting and prepared for various reasons both medically and for hunting.
However, due to the rapid scientifically methods of the study, small objects at Nanoscale. Or a molecular level, mechanical and chemicals research of genetics, epigenetics and pharmacology. The many scientifically discipline research into the invisible world lead to a rise and stimulated every natural science and human medicine. The latest research has shown now the direct link between the industrialisation, production, transportation environmental damage and human chronical diseases.
Long-term exposure to hazardous chemicals
The long-term biological effects of hazardous chemicals, heavy metals, pollution, PMs (Particular matter), new synthetic or bio-medicines are dangerous. Nevertheless, complex to prove empirically as the results from the very first exposure delayed. Gene Manipulated food (GM), plastics, cotton etc. to the development of biophysics cancer etc. takes a long time.
Toxicology has moved towards a great variety of sub-disciplines
Recent advances in analytical and synthetic chemistry, biochemistry, structural biology, and molecular cell biology presents great and valuable tools for deciphering the fate and effects of chemical compounds in biological systems across the entire range of complexity represented by the living world. From single macromolecules, for example, structural proteins, a receptor protein, nucleic acids to subcellular structures such as membranes and organelles, up to individual organs or whole organisms. Towards human-related environments and local or worldwide ecosystems. The consequence of toxicology moved towards a great variety of sub-disciplines. Such as molecular toxicology, analytical toxicology, clinical (medical) toxicology, forensic toxicology, military toxicology, occupational (industrial) toxicology, regulatory toxicology (risk assessment), food toxicology and ecotoxicology.
Sources and useful information
- Persistent Organic Pollutants Edited by Stuart Harrad School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK. Published 2010 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd
- Pesticides – recent trends in pesticide residue assay. Edited by R.P. Soundararajan. Published 2012 by InTech (all chapters are Open Access distributed)