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LD50 (lethal dose)

LD50 (lethal dose) or median lethal dose: the amount of a pharmacological or toxic substance (such as ionising radiation) that causes death in 50% of a group of experimental animals.


Toxicity is the degree to which a substance or mixture of substances can harm humans or animals; the harm can be caused by short-term, single-time, chronically, or sub-chronic.


REACH is the new European Union Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) which came into force in 2007, aims to improve the protection of human health and the environment from the risks posed by chemicals.

PFC (perfluorinated compounds)

The perfluorinated compounds, PFOA and PFOS, are compounds used in non-stick and water-repellent coatings for fabrics, recent studies indicate that these compounds, which can be environmental pollutants, also interfere with the efficiency of vaccine for children.

Green Chemistry

Green chemistry is a term used on an emerging field of science that develops chemicals to be benign. Rather than presuming to keep human and ecological exposures to chemicals within levels of toxicity deemed “acceptable,”, sustainable chemistry aims to make chemicals inherently safe.