Azoic dyes are insoluble pigments formed within the fibre by padding.
The colour index (CI) developed by the Society of Dyers and Colorists, is used for dye classification.
Dips are used to describe fabric or yarn when in the dye. Indigo yarns dipped in an indigo bath usually 6 times but up to 16 times.
Earth pigment is the name of a class of pigments, which are usually mined directly from the earth, dried, generally Calcined and ground.
Fading (textile) is a subjective term used to describe the lightening of the colour of a jeans fading (pigmented) following exposure to the effects of washing, wearing, light, heat, time, temperature and chemicals.
Madder has been cultivated as a dyestuff since antiquity in central Asia and Egypt, where it was grown as early as 1500 B.C. Cloth dyed with madder root pigment was found in the tomb of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun and in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Corinth.
Oxidation when oxygen and another substance chemically join; it occurs when the indigo yarn comes out of the indigo bath between dips, and is critical for the dyestuff to penetrate the fibre.