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Geo-engineering

Geo-engineering is the artificial modification of earth systems to counteract climate-change effects, such as increasing carbon dioxide uptake by fertilising ocean surface waters or screening out sunlight with orbiting mirrors.

Surface runoff water

Surface runoff water is a term used to describe the snow melts or irrigation water above what can infiltrate the soil surface and stored in small surface depressions; a major transporter of nonpoint source pollutants in rivers, streams, and lakes.

Surface water

Surface water is the generic name used to describe all water that is naturally open to the atmosphere (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, streams, impoundments, seas, estuaries, etc.)