The Atmosphere is a term used to describe the mixture of different gasses that surrounds Earth. These gases consist predominantly of nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapour. Most people believe the atmosphere is thick.
Daisyworld is the name of a mathematically based software program developed by James Lovelock to mimic an important element of the Earth-Sun system model when he was working on the Gaia hypothesis.
A photovoltaic cell ( solar cells) is a term used to describe devices that convert solar radiation directly to electricity. PV’s are a sort of semiconductor that catches the light and turn into pure and clean power. These devices are sound and smoke-free, no moving parts.
Volcanism is a term used to describe the phenomena of volcanic activity. Significant volcanic eruptions spew massive amounts of ash into the atmosphere that absorb solar radiation, thus potentially generating a cooling effect on planetary temperatures.