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Biomineralisation

Biomineralisation is a term used to describe a process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues.

Self-assembly

Self-assembly (also called Brownian assembly) is a term used to describe a spontaneous organization of individual pre-existing components into an ordered structure without human or supernatural invention.

Superhydrophobic surface

The superhydrophobic surface is a term used to describe a surface whereof the material is capable of creating a self-cleaning surface. Surface energy alone can hardly achieve enough hydrophobicity to create a self-cleaning surface where liquid droplets roll off from the surface as the result of extreme hydrophobicity.