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Scrap products

Scrap products that have completed their useful life, such as appliances, cars, construction materials, ships, and post-consumer steel cans

Material recovery

Material recovery is the extraction of materials from the waste stream for reuse or recycling. Examples include source separation, front-end recovery, in-plant recycling, post-combustion recovery, leaf composting, and so on.


Precycling is source reduction and reuse. In most waste management planning, the hierarchy is Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. Reduction and reuse are the first lines of defence against increasing waste volume.

Reverse logistics (RL)

Reverse logistics (RL) stands for all operations related to the flow of reuse of unwanted materials, goods or equipment back to the firm, through its logistics chain for reuse, recycling or disposal.

Glass recycling

Glass recycling is a perpetual form of recycling. Unlike some other recycled products, a recycled bottle can be recycled into another glass bottle; this process can go on endlessly with no loss in quality or purity. Glass is 100% recyclable.

Environmental design

Environmental design is a new approach in planning consumer products and industrial processes that are ecologically sustainable and intelligent, and healthy both the environment and humans.

Design for disassembly

Design for disassembly is a way to make products so that it can easily and cost-effectively be taken apart at the end of the life to recapture materials for recycling.