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Invisible hand

The “Invisible hand” is the notion of the economist Adam Smith that efficient utilisation of resources arises from a free market of individuals pursuing their selfish agendas. The theory of the firm and consumer rationality is grounded in neoclassical economics and capitalism, stemming from the work of the 18th-century moral philosopher Adam Smith, who emphasised that a free-market economy should occur within a legal and ethical framework.

Environmental engineering

Environmental engineering is a term that describes and refers to a derivative of civil engineering concerned with the development of processes and infrastructure for the supply of water, the disposal of waste and the control of pollution of all kind,

Visual pollution

Visual pollution is a term used on commercial posters, and neon light spoiling the vies of the landscape in built-up areas.

ISO 14001

ISO 14001 is a standard for environmental management systems to be implemented in any business, regardless of size, location, or income. The aim of the standard is to reduce the environmental footprint of a business and to decrease pollution and waste business produce.


Pollution is contamination of natural resources like water, air, land or eco-systems by artificial actions and a human reaction to that physical effect.

Principle of the best practice

Principle of the best practice is a design approach was work closer to nature is one of the elements to reduce processing steps, use fewest resources and cause a less negative impact on the environment.

Heavy metals

Heavy metal is a term used to describe a subset of a large number of metals and metalloids with high atomic(such as chromium, cadmium, arsenic and mercury), listed in the periodic table of the elements, which have properties of both metals and non-metals.