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Toxicology is a term used in the science of poisons and the study of adverse effects of chemical agents upon living organisms. The basic of the word Toxic comes from the Latin toxicus (translated poisonous), derived from ancient Greek word toxikon (to describe an arrow dipped in poisons).

Light reflectance

Light reflectance is a term used to describe the fraction of the total luminous flux incident upon a surface reflects, generally a function of the colour (wavelength) of the light.

Parts Per Trillion (ppt)

Parts Per Trillion (ppt) is a measurement term used to describe the Number of parts of a chemical found in one trillion (1,000,000,000,000) parts of a particular gas, liquid or solid.

Parts Per Million (ppm)

Parts per million by volume (ppmv) is a measurement term used to describe the number of elements of a chemical found in one million (1,000,000) parts of a particular gas, liquid, or reliable.


Biomineralisation is a term used to describe a process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues.


Nanomaterials are the novel engineered formed materials and fabric’s constructions at the nanometric scale. At the Nanoscale, the wholly new and different material property is possible, assembled with extremely accurate measurements at atomic level devices, materials and fabrics that are 100 times stronger than steel.


Nanotechnology represents the design, characterisation, production, and application of structures, devices, and systems by controlling the shape and size of the Nanometre scale.’ Thus, nanotechnology products are those derived from the phenomena and physicochemical characteristics occurring at the dimension of less than 100nm.