A bottom-up approach (self-assembly processes) is a term used to describe one of two ways to fabricate nanometre size elements of integrated electronic circuits.
Nano-phase material is a general term to describe any substance made up of phases that have dimensions of the order of nanometers. An ultrafine single solid phase was at least one dimension is in the nanometre range, sizes are between 1–20 nm
The Nanoscale of nanotechnology is a general term relating to objects from 1 to 100 nm. Thus a nanosecond is one-billionth of one second; a nanometre (nm) is one-billionth of one metre, and so on.
Nanotechnology represents the design, characterisation, production, and application of structures, devices, and systems by controlling the shape and size of the Nanometre scale.’ Thus, nanotechnology products are those derived from the phenomena and physicochemical characteristics occurring at the dimension of less than 100nm.
Plasma technology is a surface treatment process of textiles, adding extra value to functional textiles such as oil and water repellent, better fibre resistance that gives protection against aggressive chemicals.
Surface design is a significant factor in fashion design now, and even more in the future due to environmental issues, consumer demands and new technology such as nanotechnology makes it possible to manipulate fabric properties at the textile surface