Nonviolence is a term used to describe political actions performed without the use of violence. Gandhi was the first in modern times performing such operations against the British Empire while setting India then a colony free.
Gaia hypothesis. At the beginning of the 1960s, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) asked the scientist James Lovelock to participate in a scientific research project aimed at trying to find evidence of life on Mars.
Daisyworld is the name of a mathematically based software program developed by James Lovelock to mimic an important element of the Earth-Sun system model when he was working on the Gaia hypothesis.
Earth system science (Gaia Hypothesis) is a term used to describe science that studies the whole Earth as a system of many interacting parts and focuses on the changes within and between these.