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Throwaway society

The throwaway society is a term used to describe the fast consumer society of which the failure to design produce and maintain longer-lasting products is the opposite.

Gross National Happiness (GNH)

The concept of Gross National Happiness (GNH) was already mentioned in the section on economic value, as an attempt to define an indicator that measures the quality of life in a holistic way than its commercial counterpart GDP. Bhutan’s former King Jigme Singye coined the term.

Green economy

The term Green economy defined as “one that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. In its simplest expression, a green economy as one, which is low carbon, resource-efficient and socially inclusive” by UNEP 2011.

Human Development Index

The united nations standard measure Tools of a country’s development, based on indicators of income, education (GDP per capita) and life expectancy (expectation of life at birth).


Monetarism, an approach to economic policy to control the money supply — the critical part of neoliberalism. In a deregulated system, where banks and other institutions are much free to lend money, the main, if not the only, way to do that is to use interest rates.

Secondary materials

Secondary materials manufactured and used at least once and again. Secondary standards national ambient air quality standards designed to protect the welfare, including effects on soils, water, crops, vegetation, synthetic (anthropogenic) materials, animals, wildlife, weather, visibility, and climate; damage to property.