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Chromosome

The chromosome is a term used on a package of several distinct strands of DNA often found in the genome.

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Gene

Gene is a term used to describe in the most straightforward cases, a segment of DNA that specifies the structure of a protein or an RNA molecule. Each gene contains instructions on producing or controlling a specific protein.

Genetic code

The genetic code is a term used to describe the sequences of the genome. More specifically, the system whereby specific amino acids represented in the form of three sequential DNA bases.

Genetic programming (GP)

Genetic programming (GP) is a term used to describe a specific kind of evolutionary algorithm that manipulates symbols according to prescribed rules, motivated by the genetic operations of selection, mutation, and crossover.

Phenotype

Phenotype is the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism, as determined by both genetic makeup and environmental influences. (Contrast with genotype.)