The Scientific method is a term used to describe the discovering scientific principles by formulating hypotheses, making predictions from them, and testing the predictions.
Gaia hypothesis. At the beginning of the 1960s, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) asked the scientist James Lovelock to participate in a scientific research project aimed at trying to find evidence of life on Mars.
Daisyworld is the name of a mathematically based software program developed by James Lovelock to mimic an important element of the Earth-Sun system model when he was working on the Gaia hypothesis.
The hydrosphere is a term that includes the total of Earth’s water resources such as lakes, oceans, streams, underground, surface water and finally snow and ice. The perennially frozen parts of the hydrosphere collectively referred to as the cryosphere.