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Molecular motor

A biological molecular machine that consumes energy in one form and converts it into motion or mechanical work; for example, many protein-based molecular motors harness the chemical-free power released by the hydrolysis of ATP to perform mechanical action.

Atomic energy

Atomic energy is a term used to describe the constitutive internal power of the atom, which was absorbed when formed.

Nuclear fusion reactors

Nuclear fusion reactors is a term used to describe a future source of energy. Most stars including our own Sun released energy by nuclear reactions between light atoms at temperatures of millions of degrees.


Glucose is a simple sugar, or monosaccharide, formula C6H12O6. This six-carbon carbohydrate is the main source of energy for animals and plants.

Calorie (cal)

A calorie defined as an energy measure unit. One calorie is the amount of energy required to heat 1 gram of water from 14.5 to 15.5°C. 1 cal = 4.184 Joule

Structural colour

Structural colour is a term used to describe objects that do not have any pigment yet get their colours from light that is being reflected in microstructures and by this manipulating our brain’s way to see colours (like in a rainbow). In nature, tremendous numbers of orders and patterns are generated spontaneously, which enliven our surroundings.

Industrial ecology

Industrial ecology is a field of study that handles within the sustainability framework. The essence of industrial ecology described as a system not in isolation from its surrounding systems, but the plan with them.


Biomass – A biomass fuel is an energy source derived from living organisms.