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Scientific method

The Scientific method is a term used to describe the discovering scientific principles by formulating hypotheses, making predictions from them, and testing the predictions.

Water scarcity

Water scarcity is a term used to describe a country or region where the annual renewable water supplies are below 1000 m3 per person.

Gaia hypothesis

Gaia hypothesis. At the beginning of the 1960s, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) asked the scientist James Lovelock to participate in a scientific research project aimed at trying to find evidence of life on Mars.


Photosynthesis. The leaves of plants convert carbon dioxide, water, and nutrient chemicals into plant food via a process called photosynthesis. Without this process, there would be little or no life on the planet.

Climate model

The Climate model is a numerical representation of the climate system carried out on supercomputers, usually including a range of complex climate variables.


The troposphere is the region of the lower atmosphere up to a height of about 10 km where the temperature falls with height and where convection is the dominant process for the transfer of heat in the vertical

Thermodynamics earth system

Thermodynamics is a term used to describe the set of natural laws that govern the transfer of energy from one body to another. Thermodynamics (comes from Greek “therme”, heat and dynamics, power) control behaviour of energy as it moves in and out of the Earth system, and among its reservoirs.

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