Gaia hypothesis. At the beginning of the 1960s, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) asked the scientist James Lovelock to participate in a scientific research project aimed at trying to find evidence of life on Mars.
Geocomplexity is a term used to describe a category of global issues in which social, political, military, and economic activities interact as a complex system and in which the dynamic nature of the problems make top-down, command-and-control, and reductionist management methods ineffective.
Nonviolence is a term used to describe political actions performed without the use of violence. Gandhi was the first in modern times performing such operations against the British Empire while setting India then a colony free.