The Bioreactor is a term used as an apparatus which is used to carry out bioprocesses such as fermenters and enzyme reactors.
Biotechnology is techniques that use living organisms or parts of plants to produce a variety of products (from medicines to industrial enzymes)
Clone is a term used to describe a daughter animal with an identical genome to the mother.
Environmental biotechnology is a term to describe the scientific engineering of biological systems for environment-friendly processes, such as green manufacturing and clean-up pollution.
Industrial biotechnology is a term upon various highly-developed applications that uses engineered microbes and enzymes in chemical synthesis processes. These engineered components can be highly useful to clean up the environment.
Self-assembly (also called Brownian assembly) is a term used to describe a spontaneous organization of individual pre-existing components into an ordered structure without human or supernatural invention.
Smart materials describe a general term that refers to those unique materials which are characterised by their intelligence as they can recognise appropriately to stimuli from the internal and external environment.
Surface design is a significant factor in fashion design now, and even more in the future due to environmental issues, consumer demands and new technology such as nanotechnology makes it possible to manipulate fabric properties at the textile surface