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Hydrogels

Hydrogels made from reprocessed silkworm silk, a gel formed with aqueous solutions of the fibroin prepared as outlined earlier. The rate of sol-gel transition is directly dependent on temperature (higher the temperature the more rapid the gelation), pH (lower the pH the more rapid the gelation), and solids content (higher the solids higher the rates of gelation.

Retting

Retting is a microbial process that breaks the chemical bonds; it allows that hold the stem together, and separation of the bast fibres happen. This separation needed if linen, flax or hemp fibres are to be used in textile. The two traditional types of retting are field and water retting.

Hemp fibre

Hemp fibre is a bast fibre probably used first in Asia. The cord is dark tan or brown and is difficult to bleach, but it can be dyed bright and dark colours. The hemp fibre varies widely in length, depending upon their ultimate use. Industrial threads may be several inches long, while fibre used for domestic textiles are about 1.9 to 2.5 cm.

Hard fibres

Hard fibre is a term used to describe a group of fibres made from leaf and fruit monocotyledonous plants (vegetable fibres) obtained from the supporting tissue of large leaves from tropical, sub-tropical plants.

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