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Tragedy of the Commons

The tragedy of the Commons, the notion, explicated by Garrett Hardin, that though we live in a Commons, individuals will practice selfish behaviours that are not in the common good and lead to overexploitation of resources.

Transformational innovation

Transformational innovation is a term used to describe the value for all four levels at the same time. But the cost has a different meaning at these different levels, and it is crucial to have a good understanding of what these levels are, and what value means at these different levels.


The idea of transparency is to have an open and engaging environment within the company and the community to increase efficiency, performance and gain profit. Furthermore, promote employee involvement and innovation through creative processes and communication.