Petroleum in its natural form before it is processed is known as crude oil, the colour can be green, black, dark, brown or clear, thick like tar or thin like gasoline; and are liquid under normal conditions of temperature and pressure. Petroleum is formed by complex hydrocarbons ( a compound made up of carbon and hydrogen) with an addition of certain other substances, first of all, sulphur.
The composition of petroleum contains many trace (a small percentage) elements, nevertheless, the key compounds are:
- 93% – 97% carbon
- 10% -14% hydrogen
- 0.1% – 2% nitrogen
- 0.1% – 1.5% oxygen
- 0.5% – 6% sulphur
Petroleum differs in viscosity and can range from almost a solid consistent with a clear fluid resembling kerosene or gasoline, and does hardly need any refining to be used as fuel. The composition of petroleum’s raw state dictates the usage of the final product. The most profitable is the lighter, fewer dense raw composition. It contains a significantly higher percentage of hydrocarbon and is paid the highest price per barrel because it can be used as the fuel source almost without being refined. The denser petroleum contains less hydrocarbon and sulphur and is more suitable for plastic manufacturing because it’s too expensive to refine into fuel. The crude oil through the process of separation, upgrading and finishing become products such as motor fuel, jet oil, lubricant’s petroleum solvents and plastics. Most of the petroleum is used in the production of fuel. However, crude oil also constitutes other types of products.
Crude oil contains
- 42% Gasoline
- 22% Diesel
- 9% Jet Fuel
- 5% Fuel Oil
- 4% Liquefied Petroleum Gases
- 18% Other products
Almost 90% of human carbon dioxide emissions come from the use of non-renewable sources of energy
The use of non-renewable sources of energy is the largest human-produced carbon dioxide emission. 87% come from burning of oil, natural gas and coal. Petroleum is classified as the non-renewable source of energy along with coal and oil because it takes millions of years to form. When sea plants and animals die, they remain buried deep below ground under the pressure of many thousand feet of sand, mud and silt. The biggest producers of crude oil are Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. However, Middle East oil comes from other countries such as Iraq and Iran. The north sea is also an important crude oil field, maybe the second most influential in economic terms. Once the world’s major oil region Texas is now almost dry.
Clothing and Textiles
- ballet tights, nylon cord, everything polyester: blouses, pants, pyjamas etc. everything permanent press: shirts, dresses etc. beads, bracelets, pantyhose, nylon zippers, plastic hangers, purses, thongs and flip flop, earrings, ribbons, fake fur, windbreakers, sandals, garment bags, shoe \laces, raincoats, iron-on patches, sneakers, sweaters, sofa pillow material
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