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Pesticides

The pesticide is a term used to describe the human-made chemical used in agriculture to management control of the pest. The suffix “-cide” literally means “kill”, therefore, pesticide refers to a chemical substance that kills pests, insects, microbes and pathogens. And weeds has been developed; pesticides not replaced.


The cost of using pesticides delayed at a very high value

However, over the last 30 years or more health workers and the agricultural sector has been compelled to handle huge problems caused by various pesticides in other forms of agricultural products such as herbicides, fungicides and insecticides. Chemical compounds to control the above-unwanted elements for an effective way of protecting the crop. Nevertheless, it is the nature of non-selective toxicity towards other habitats organism and deposition in the soil, air and water.

It is raising several ecological and life-threatening concerns. More than 90 per cent of the herbicides and insecticides reach their target (98 per cent insecticides and 95 per cent of herbicides). They spread as said, everywhere, and causes contamination. In the air in the form of small particles (Particulate matter or PM) are liquids that are causing air pollution. Pesticides are one of the reasons for water pollution Pesticides ii the form of agricultural run-off water, and industrial wastes result in harm to aquatic plants, soil and animals.


Chemical toxins applied the living substances

Since some pesticides are persistent organic pollutants, low volatile, non-polar, lipophilic nature (most banned for agricultural and domestic uses in Europe, North America and South America) the soil and water is contaminated elsewhere. However, some OCPs still used, as DDT (control of the outbreak of the mosquito that spread malaria, and as antifouling agent). Besides, the most commonly used acaricide, Dicofol, is made of DDT, so formulated products always contain small amounts of DDT.

Therefore, the food in many products from animal or plant origin become not safe for human consumption. The quantities of persistent pesticides molecules pollute, any chemical compounds in pesticides are highly stable and unbreakable chains of molecules. They continue to kill the target host long after the application, which is more dangerous than advantageous for the specific target of the active agricultural industry. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are mostly organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs).


Humans exposure to harmful chemicals over time

The soil contaminates everywhere and results in, for example, that organically produced food contains harmful chemicals to the human body since the soil is contaminated. When exposed to these various sources of harmful chemical in food, air and water sources. According to various research shows that over time these chemical substances leads to chronical diseases. Such as cancer. The cells change the route from a natural selection (DNA). Over time changes the way of living species to read the DNA codes naturally (epigenetics). Some non-polar pesticides are fat-soluble, a tendency to bio-accumulate in the food chain and to concentrate in human and animal tissues.


Use of advanced technology

Through the use of advanced technology such as chromatography to mass spectrometry analysis of pesticide residues detection of molecules is depending on sample preparation. The metabolism of pesticides denotes that any unknown substances to entering in the living systems and change from toxic to non-toxic depending on the activity of enzymatic factors thrown out of the system of living species. However, this leads to resistance from other chemical compounds needed, such as medicines due to increased enzymatic activity and other metabolism factors.


Chemical toxins applied the non-living substances

The chemical toxins applied to the non-living (disputable) substances such as soil and water can only lose the unwanted chemicals of actions of biotic and abiotic in the degradation process. The time it takes to nullify the toxicity is a prime factor depending on the environmental conditions, and since chemical compound accumulated in plants and soil and water the degradation cannot catch-up naturally these unwanted chemical compounds from pesticides over time. It is keeping the soil, water and plants contaminated.


The results of both contaminations

Consequently, both contamination routes lead to bio-accumulation of pesticides in food products of animal origin as meat, fish, fat, offal, eggs, and milk.



Sources and useful information


  • Pesticides – recent trends in pesticide residue assay. Edited by R.P. Soundararajan. Published 2012 by InTech (all chapters are Open Access distributed)
  • Persistent Organic Pollutants Edited by Stuart Harrad School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK. Published 2010 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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