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Nickel-cadmium (nicad) battery

Nickel-cadmium (nicad) battery is a type of batteries described as secondary means they recharged. Such rechargeable battery used in many small appliances; involves oxidation of cadmium and reduction of nickel oxyhydroxide (NiO(OH)). During the normal use and maintenance of a battery system, they are neither destroyed nor dissipated, nor do they emit any harmful substances. Depending on system sealed or vented? In case the batteries sealed zero-emission happening during normal use and maintenance. However, life-cycle analysis of rechargeable batteries is difficult to measure because the unknown factor is calculating the charging process if the energy source comes from fossil or renewable energy.

Life cycle impact analysis
The critical issue is how to handle battery and appliances for disposal in a life cycle impact analysis. Regardless of composition, performance, and whether they are rechargeable, it is the last disposal of the battery, which determines its significant environmental and human health impact. Cells are theoretically high-grade recycled. Also depending on the factor of application batteries were in use.

Can batteries and application be separated easily into:

  • Organic group (upper crust of earth)
  • Metals (deep down earth)

It is difficult reducing some of the battery metal oxides present in the systems. Anywhere between ten to twenty per cent of nickel-metal hydride batteries lost in the slag. Recycling of reactive metals (chromium, aluminium, magnesium, vanadium, zirconium, titanium and rare earth elements) difficult. See Alkaline battery, Nickel Cadmium (nicad) battery and heavy metals.

Positive and negative effects of battery


  • For heavy-duty use
  • High mechanical strength
  • High-efficiency charge
  • Charge cycle: 500 times
  • Easy to recycle


  • Low energy
  • Memory effect
  • Toxicity
  • High self-discharge in sealed cells
  • More expensive than Ni-Cd


  • Portable OA equipment
  • Portable AV equipment
  • Power tools
  • Medical instruments
  • Stationary applications
  • Space applications

Sources and useful information

  • Used Battery Collection and Recycling, Edited by G. Pistoia. Published by Elsevier Science 2001
  • Battery operated devices and systems. From portable electronics to industrial products, by G. Pistoia. Published by Elsevier 2008

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