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Modernisation. Economic theory holding that science, technology, art, and all essential goods and services must be mass-produced and mass-marketed to maximise social well-being. Much mischief made in “underdeveloped” countries by replacing community and agrarian/craft work with low-wage work in a capitalist market. It displaces people from land and kin to become the surplus labour in large ghettos, barrios, favelas, and cities around the world. Young people, dispossessed of land and cut off from their family, must find work at low wages or turn to begging, prostitution, theft, or worse. Technology progress can easily become a trap when it reaches a critical mass of users of which the advantages of the technology overcome its intention.

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