Microbiology is a term used to describe the study of microorganisms. The term adds today functional Ecology and molecular biology to the discipline. Microbiology was first used in the late 17th century when Bacteria was discovered by Leeuwenhoek. His breakthrough using microscopy of mixed natural cultures. It was mostly used in simple experiments. Nevertheless, an unimpeachable experiment with sterilized beef broth finally breed for microbes, and the science of microbiology became an established discipline. Robert Koch developed techniques in a laboratory for pure culture in the late 19th century (reductionist phase), microbes were isolated and characterised.
The later microbiologists focused the research into the characterization of different microorganisms, such as the Archaea, eubacterial pathogens including MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and Legionella. During the discovery of communities found in extreme environments such as temperature-tolerant DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and polymerase enzymes paved the way for new disciplines within molecular biology. Rapidly new discoveries within the field of molecular biology and hybridisation developed new techniques such as DNA chips and single-stranded conformation polymorphism made it possible to study ecology at a molecular level. Especially within epigenetics molecular biology is used in drug delivery within pharmaceutical industries.