The resource domain that lies outside of the political reach of any one state referred to as the Global Commons. Historically has the Atmosphere; Antarctica; and, Outer Space been identified by international law and guided by the principles of the common heritage of humankind. Even many attempts by individuals and governments to established property rights or other forms to control over natural resources still global commons have remained an exception.
Despite efforts by governments or individuals to establish property rights or other forms of control over most natural resources, the Global Commons have remained an exception. The pressure on Earth’s natural resources make places such as Antarctica interesting and valuable for exploitation. Increased pollution risk and negative consequences of global warming. Protection, access, and control of Earth’s last frontiers seem more important than ever before. See UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme Environment) for development about the commons.