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The biosensor is a device or system which incorporates a biologically active material in the material. It is in intimate contact with an appropriate transduction element for detecting the concentration or activity of chemical species in any sample. The device usually consists of a biological recognition system, also known as transducer and bioreceptor. In most cases biochip stacks up of and a variety of single biosensors that generally can be monitored individually and used for analyses of multiple analyses. The interaction of the reports with the bioreceptor is designed to produce an effect registered by the transducer, which converts the information into a measurable impact, such as an electrical signal.

Essential elements of a biosensor

  • Bioreceptor (enzymes, antibody, microorganism, or cells)
  • The transducer of the physicochemical signal
  • Signal processor to interpret the information converted

Biosensors used in many different applications across a wide range of industries, including medicine, food, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and of course, military. The manufacturing of biosensors has become very advanced due to the emergence of related technologies. The size of the devices has gradually been becoming smaller, given rise to submicron detection systems, also called Nano-biosensors. See  Bioreceptor 

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