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The adhesive is a term used to describe a material that is capable of holding together solid materials by surface attachment. The oldest adhesives are proteins and polysaccharides, which are high molecular weight natural polymers derived from plants and animals. Today most adhesives are made from synthetic polymers range from commodity products. Used in box and carpet manufacturing and highly specialised used in surgery and aerospace such as cyanoacrylate or sealant. Its value-chain ranges from basic petrochemicals and mineral applications; to industrial manufacture end-users or consumers. Adhesives are performance products, what they do rather than their chemical basis. Adhesion is the physical bond or attraction of the surface of one material near the surface of another. An adherend is a solid material to which the adhesive adheres, and the adhesive bond or adhesive joint is the assembly made by joining adhered together by an adhesive. Adhesives are essential in the manufacturing of nonwoven fibres. As the name implies, are not woven in the classic sense of garments, but constitute a continuous web of thread laid down mechanically.

Cross-linking techniques

Furthermore, deposited randomly or in one way. The most well-known fibres include polyamides, polyesters and cellulosic. Before innovations and development of new techniques such as thermal bonding, almost all types of nonwoven material were forced using chemical binders to provide the measure of structural integrity. For many years, nonwoven not fully accepted because the binders were not strong enough. As a consequence extensively researches over the years continuously improved strengths and softness with acrylic-based latex binders in the 1950 and 1960s. Later techniques such as cross-linking binders of a carbonyl or acrylic-based latex polymers developed, depending upon the end-use of the fabric can increase strength, softness, durability, fire resistance, antimicrobial properties, organic compatibility, surface tension, dimensional stability, and solvent, wash and acid resistance. Adhesives used in nonwovens can be 5 per cent to 60 per cent of the weight of the fabric on a dry basis. Hence, they are not purely adhesives but provide many significant attributes to the fabric, as mention above.

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