Adaptation initiatives and measures to reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems against actual or expected climate change effects. Adaptation can be anticipatory, taking place before observed changes, or reactive. It can also be autonomous or spontaneous, being triggered by no climate-related stimuli. Examples include raising dyke levels or the substitution of more temperature-shock resistant plants for sensitive ones. additionally reduction in greenhouse gas emissions or enhancement of greenhouse gas removals by sinks that would not occur without a Joint Implementation (JI) or a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project activity as defined in the Kyoto Protocol.
- Hazard Identification
- Risk Assessment
- Risk Control Option
- Recommendation and implementation strategies
- The locally responsible thing to do
- Actions that minimize or prevent the negative impact of climate change