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The series of posts Coronavirus

How to capture economic growth on disasters and catastrophes?

In the 1990s the insurance industry lack of growth started to innovate new financial products, calculating new threat of risk became the protection of future events and profits. Climate change and the creation of economic growth made people innovate financially, and protect themselves against its changes; Earthquakes, terrorism, flooding, hurricanes, infectious diseases are the sorts of events involved, many of which are weather- or climate-related. The outcome was according to the author of “The enemy of nature, the end of capitalism or the end of the world?” Joel Kovel; “the outcome was a market in ‘catastrophe bonds’ and ‘catastrophe futures’ by 2006 was worth billion. The logic of these deals is this: the insurer issues a bond which says that if there is no hurricane in a specified area over a certain time period, then the investor who buys the bond will return an attractive rate of interest. If, however, there is such a hurricane, the investor loses their money which is then used to payout on insured losses from the hurricane”. Part One of the post Understanding the catastrophe risk economy of war on biological threats.

Disinformation in the after-match of September 11

Moreover, political leaders flood the public with at best-regarded disinformation while withholding vital information about their activities and official documents. At the same time journalists who supposed to investigate cases stopped asking questions about the information presented, it was not the right time in the aftermath of September 11. Journalists accessed premade information from the variously governmental department. Information on new global threats in the post-terror of September 11 became scaringly popular. Media flooded with stories on various subjects such as biological threats, bioterrorism, chemical warfare, rare diseases and deathly viruses became a juxtapose of facts and fictions. Media and TV-obsession with the zombie apocalypse, who by 2016 upended the entire TV business, series such as The Walking Dead (2012) and Fear the Walking Dead (2015) just the start (sources Conservation.com). The list of movies in the era of biological threats is endless, such as Bio Zombie (12998), Bio Hazardous (2001), The 8th plaques (2016), Blood Quantum (2019), End Zeit (2018) and Extinction (2015) (Sources Wikiwand list of Zombie movies)

In 2004, three years after September 11, and unsolved anthrax attacked a new national defence strategy on biological threats taken. The legislation Project BioShield presented by the Bush Administration, funded by the US Congress authorised billion for purchasing and stockpiling of vaccines and drugs against bioterrorist attacks. At the same time, a more secretive initiative was underway to establish four research centres for the testing of biological weapons defences (Sources Project BioShield Medicalcountermeasures.org)

War on germs after World War II

After world war II, public health institutions have the confidence to declare that the war on germs was almost over. That infectious disease would be conquered once and for all, sequestered, quarantined, eliminated even, first in the “developed” world and later in the “developing” world, through the classic public health strategies of quarantine and immunisation as well as the massive use of the new generation of antibiotics and vaccines. A worldview very far from the ideas presented later on in the 1950s by the microbiologist René Dubos. However, in the 1970s, previously, secret and rare infectious diseases increased at an alarming rate, according to Melinda Cooper author of the eminent book Life as Surplus Biotechnology and Capitalism in the Neoliberal Era; “the astonishing pace of one per year, mostly caused by newly discovered viruses. The concept of “emerging infectious diseases” has itself emerged as a new medical and research speciality”.

In the 1950s the microbiologist René Dubos presented the term “emergence” into the natural language. A way of describing the temporality of biological evolution. By “emergence” he understood not the gradual accumulation of local mutations, but the relentless, sometimes catastrophic upheaval of entire coevolving ecologies; sudden field transitions never predicted in linear terms from a single mutation. At the same time a “health transition” was official public health doctrine, Dubos dismissed the idea that infectious disease eliminated. Let alone stabilised. There is no final equilibrium in the battle against germs; he argued. There is no assignable limit to the coevolution of resistance, counterproliferation, emergence, and counter emergence (Source Life as Surplus Biotechnology and Capitalism in the Neoliberal Era by Melinda Cooper. Published 2008 by the University of Washington Press).

Microbial resistance

In Dubos’s work the concept of microbial “resistance” is divested of its association with the pathological: resistance is merely another word for emergence, and there is no end to it; its future evolution is unforeseeable from within the present. Microbial life evolves in close synergy with ecologies and public health. At the beginning of the millennium, a new view on how to stop future events related to the resurgence of infectious disease as a national security threat. The future evolution of life, it warned, would be defined by permanent warfare.

Notably, the securitisation of emergence has occurred in parallel with the neoliberal demolition of public health—a process whose effects felt in everything from access to community-level care to vaccination programs and health insurance. In this way, the new security discourse takes up Dubos’s philosophy of microbial war while divesting it of all its profound insights into the relational practice of living with germs. For Dubos, the essential point is that microbial life, with its inherent mutability, evolves in close synergy with ecologies of public health. Biological phenomena such as drug resistance, while inevitable in the long run, can therefore be intensified or countered by the way we administer and distribute medicines. Hence the tendency of the rich to overuse antibiotics, and of the poor to underuse them. Both factors in the acceleration of drug resistance (Source Life as Surplus Biotechnology and Capitalism in the Neoliberal Era by Melinda Cooper. Published 2008 by the University of Washington Press).

Economic theory does not describe; it prescribes

Political economy in the neoliberal and conservative era is in simple terms, economic processes are equilibrium systems determined by global forces because individual actions averaged out, and variations occur because equilibrium is disturbed by exogenous random change. The idea of social and economic stability, desirable and healthy is a terminological confusion. The equilibrium in physics is associated with rest, in thermodynamics with decay. Chemical equilibration accompanies death, not living. Throughout the 1990s, the discourse on humanitarian intervention effectively challenged the rules of legitimate warfare.

They were introducing the novel idea that states, under the authority of the UN Security Council, had the right and even the duty to intervene militarily in the internal affairs of other sovereign nations to pursue humanitarian or disaster relief. For example, justified a general breakdown in social and urban infrastructure—whatever, the cause—ethnic conflict, economic devastation, infectious disease, or environmental catastrophe. International relations experts were now openly anticipating that the significant refugee flows of the twenty-first century caused by ecological crisis and conflicts over resource scarcity (SourceThe enemy of nature, the end of capitalism or the end of the world? By Joel Kovel. Published 2007 by Fernwood Publishing). Insurance companies are founded on the idea of risk management – calculating the probabilities of types of events and working out means of spreading, hedging against, minimizing or otherwise managing the dangers those events pose.

Human rights Eco-Fashion Encyclopedia

The militarization of humanitarian relief and response belief

Two US policy documents are particularly illuminating for example, at US Foreign Policy and the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse: Humanitarian Relief in Complex Emergencies published by the Centre for Strategic and International Studies in 1997 and prefaced by George Bush Sr., the comprehensive scope and strategies of humanitarian warfare. These security threats defined by the imperil human, biological, and even Biospheric existence rather than the formal political institutions of the state.

The other remarkable document, The Global Threat of New and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases: Reconciling US National Security and Public Health Policy, published by the RAND Corporation in 2003, identically to the first, however, it focuses on America’s domestic affairs. A reconciliation of the US national security with public health policy. The conclusion recommends that the government adopt the methods of humanitarian intervention as a way of responding to domestic “biological security” threats running the gamut from emerging infectious disease to deliberate incidents of germ warfare. The implicit conclusion is that public health crises—indeed natural disasters of all kinds— require the same sort of full-spectrum military response as deliberate acts of terror.

The last change towards the militarisation of catastrophes was the 2003 Bush administration decision to incorporate the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) within the Department of Homeland Security. From a civil emergency response agency into an antiterrorist organisation. The ongoing and never-ending war on concept seems to be in the field of global warming and hard to find evidence zone. The war on germs is making it possible to overcome the ecological limits of a political, economic growth model far from equilibrium. This profit gains from disorder, of which the weakest’s is only a cost-cutting strategy caused by fear. The new productive workforce slaves of debt, with capital from the sources of capital accumulation of the new order. Taking full control is timed to stop China. An economic expansion into territories of Earths final treasures of Africa. Remarkable similarities to David Rockefellers quote on the new order “We are on the verge of a global transformation. All we need is the right major crisis, and the nations will accept the New World Order.” David Rockefeller. (source Do we have a story crisis? Part Three the Final Warning for humanity)

The history repeats itself, the masses sleep, dare not to

Using a strategy forcing new laws by military and police interventions, putting aside constitutional rights for the best of humanity to prevent catastrophic events taking control by fear, propaganda and unforeseen pandemics, that was no treat become genocide without possibilities to prove quilts. A reminder that a virus on the size of 30 nanometres is invisible even for the sources of light, can it ever be confirmed if the event occurred or not.In what sense is it even possible now to claim a right to “life,” social security, public health—the peculiarly vital rights of the welfare state—without falling into the trap of legitimating permanent warfare? And how do we counter a politics that turns the possibility of ecological crisis into a tradable catastrophe risk on the capital markets?” writes the author Melinda Cooper The soundness of economic theory and economic policies can only be judged by their effect on the well-being of persons, our species, and the biosphere”. Part One Understanding the catastrophe risk economy of war on biological threats


The series of posts Coronavirus

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