- The Image Top left-side Anarchy in the U.K t-shirt by Vivienne Westwood, graphics Union Jack by Jamie Reid. The Book Punk a definitive record of a revolution by Stephen Colegrave & Chris Sullivan. Published 2001 by Thunder’s Mouth Press
- Image top middle-side Mick Jones screen-print shirt, photographs used in the artwork for the first Clash and Black-market Clash albums. Photographer Rocco Redondo capturing a riot during the 1976 Nothing Hill Carnival. The Book The Clash by Mick Jones, Paul Simonon, Topper Headon and Joe Strummer. Published 2008 by Atlantic Books
- The Image top right-side Alan Jones, Chrissie Hynde, Jordan and Vivienne Westwood wearing fetish clubwear. The book Punk a definitive record of a revolution by Stephen Colegrave & Chris Sullivan. Published 2001 by Thunder’s Mouth Press
- The Image Middle left-side Project double print ad. Title Katharine Hamnett autumn/winter 1984. Photographer Per Lindberg. Stop Acid Rain unisex oversize t-shirt messages. Kathrine used upcoming people and photographers catapulting them forward such as Jürgen Teller and Terry Richardson. The Book Wear Me Fashion Graphics + Graphics Interaction. Editor and project coordinator Liz Farrelly. Published by Booth-Clibborn Editions 1995.
- The Image Middle right-side Martin Margiela Slogan t-shirt. Project AIDS t-shirt. Title Martin Margiela spring/summer 1995. The book Wear Me Fashion Graphics + Graphics Interaction. Editor and project coordinator Liz Farrelly. Published by Booth-Clibborn Editions 1995.
- The Image Down left-side project Press Association photograph. Title designer with a message for Margaret. The year 1984 “50% don’t want Pershing” slogan oversize t-shirt. One of her most successful message t-shirt. Wear Me Fashion Graphics + Graphics Interaction. Editor and project coordinator Liz Farrelly. Published by Booth-Clibborn Editions 1995.
- Image Down middle-side. Adbuster Magazine Nike Sweatshop ads
- The image down right-side The Clash Joe Strummer wearing on stages the hand-stencilled “1977” shirt. The song became an early Clash live favourite. The Book The Clash by Mick Jones, Paul Simonon, Topper Headon and Joe Strummer. Published 2008 by Atlantic Books
Refashioned and the Fashion Revolution Part Two
The second post in the series from Green fashion to Refashioned examine sustainable fashion past history and the context. The concept of taking used materials and work with for another purpose is not new. Refashioned heritage gives a better understanding of its core meaning. Refashion core is a critic of contemporary waste and throw away culture and visually shows it possible to work differently.
Marcel Duchamp and Dada movement
Making things from scraps, the idea is not new, poorer societies such as the favelas of Rio de Janeiro, or shantytowns outside of mega-cities centres around the world built houses and suburban towns of cardboard, plastics, and wood found on the landfills. The first movement that took ordinary objects and highlighted its meaning was the Dada movement created by the leading artist of the 1920s Marcel Duchamp. He was the first, followed by the surrealist movement. Dada art movement, which set the tone of cultural subversion for the last century, transformed ordinary objects presented in the exhibitions as high price art objects.
Andy Warhol was a fan of Marc and took Dadaism into the 1960s
Andy Warhol was a big fan of Marc who became the most respected and admired visitor atThe Factory in New York. Andy Warhol took the ideas of Dada into his own work; Andy celebrated pop and used it in his art. Pop art used the same production methods as the mass-produced, however, it was a critic of consumer culture objects, and Andy did this best by using techniques of replicating and veneration of ordinary objects such as the Campbell’s soup cans. Like Marcel Duchamp elevation of common objects into high art, the most well-known object “the urinal signed R. Mutt” exhibited in the 1920s. It was shocking and anti-established, altering a new meaning of mass-produced ordinary object out of the conventional settings and placing them in exhibitions and galleries.
Refashioned similar approach taking reused materials regarded useless, transforms craftily into cutting-edge clothing. Andy Warhol’s works are highly inspired by Duchamp and the surrealist painter Dali. Perfected certain formulas and basically repeated it until he died, simultaneously Warhol criticised the consumer culture, Andy used the same technique as a mass-producer of art and repeated his formula over and over, created a pop culture like the Dadaists. Andy used a space called the Factory, it was setting the tone with a small elite of followers that glamourized glamour using shock tactics, venerated disposable items that were a part of everyday existence. (Sources All Tomorrows Parties, Billy Name, Andy Warhol And The Factory)
The punks inspired by Andy and the factory DIY culture
In music and fashion, the punk culture of the mid-seventies inspired by pop culture DIY, experimenting and celebrated the bizarre and shocking for the sake of getting attention. Punk was anti-establishment similar to the concept of beatniks and the beat poets. Punk came as a reaction to the extreme snobbish, Thatcherism, symphony rock, corporate record companies, fashion style dictated by brand profit without meaning. The punks inspired by bands such as Velvet Underground, Nico, Lou Reed, Iggy Pop, and the Stooges. They admired The Factory for establishing a DIY culture, doing, creating and decide themselves how to produce, present, and publish. The raw music, shocking behaving, and style wise bizarre dress codes. The punks celebrated a DIY culture and turned against the music and fashion industry by establishing their own record companies and clothing style, retail, and independent stores. (Source D.I.Y. Punk Tees History And Fashion Lookbooks)
The most trendsetting store in the 1970s was Let’s Rock in Kings Road, London, later changed name to Sex and finally to Seditionaries. Malcolm McLaren sprayed its interior with slogans from Valerie Scum (cutting up men) Manifesto, looting Soho porn shop for ideas and over time together with his partner Vivienne Westwood assembled a range of bizarre, fetishist clothing, which turned into the punk rock look. Vivienne Westwood transformed pillow-wear, cut-off, overprinted and applied soft porn pictures. The extraordinary thing about The Sex was the coding. Hidden bizarre images and cut out of soft porn magazines overprinted with stencils and messages. It was shocking and worked against the established. Vivienne was very honest about designing. She stole ideas from bondage-wear magazines and reconstructed. It was her source of inspiration. By using rubber and materials they created a fetish trend whereof attracted outsiders, counter-culture, and the youngsters. Punk was more than just music, it opened up for second-hand clothing, ripped and torn jeans, DIY t-shirts and inspired generations to make and buy used clothes such as the grunge culture with Nirvana and Kurt Cobain celebrated thrift-stores and used clothing mirroring a part of the social life in Seattle and inequality in America in general. (Sources The book Punk a definitive record of a revolution by Stephen Colegrave & Chris Sullivan. Published 2001 by Thunder’s Mouth Press and The 1970s punk youth culture and fashion lookbooks)
The only band that mattered The Clash
Punk lasted only 18 months, however, another band took it a step further The Clash with a rebelliously, politically and multicultural music style, strong lyrics and true engagement in social problems, spokespersons of the working class, against racism, involved and extremely creative musically. The way they dress represented the band’s view of the world in a visually symbolic and graphical way. Joe Strummer was not only a musician he was the voice of unfairness, inequality and stood up for the working class and the underprivileged people in Britain, but the Clash also became popular in America as one of the very few British bands in history. The Clash became bigger than the music, they were activist and provocative, and Joe Strummer without fear criticized the corporate culture and defended workers’ rights. (Sources The Clash by Mick Jones, Paul Simonon, Topper Headon and Joe Strummer. Published 2008 by Atlantic Books and The 1970s The Clash Fashion Lookbooks, the only band that mattered)
Katharina Hamnett the world foremost environmentalist designer in the 1980’s
Later in the 1980s another fashion revolutionary designer Katharina Hamnett continued the crusade on her own, her t-shirts graphics symbols and slogans criticised the geopolitical situation. Katharine Hamnett was the most successful example of bridging the gap between designer street fashion and the designer shop fashion. She set up her own company in 1979 with a loan (reported to be a loan), and along with Vivienne Westwood, processed to dominate British fashion in the 1980s. She was the first designer to utilise prewashed parachute silks and unisex utility clothing. In 1983 she launched the first range of slogans t-shirts with the “choose life” collection.
Inspired by a Buddhist exhibition it included slogans such as “worldwide Nuclear Ban Now” and “EDUCATION Not Missiles.” A theme she continued pursued in 84 when she confronted Margarete Thatcher at a Downing Street reception wearing one of her outsize t-shirt bearing the legend “58% Don’t Want Pershing” slogan. She continued to merge fashion and politics throughout the ’80s with her post-feminist woman “Power Dressing” collection. Kathrine Hamnett is one of the foremost environmentalist designer, a campaigner, idealist, and social maverick. (Source The Encyclopedia of the 80s A decade of i-Deas. Compiled and produced by i-D magazine. Published by Penguin Books first published 1990).Recommended Google Arts and Culture Activist and icon Katharina Hamnett British Fashion Council
- Refashioned, making cutting edge clothing from upcycled material by Sass Brown. Published by Laurence King Publishing 2013.
- Punks, a definitive record of a revolution by Stephen Colegrave & Chris Sullivan. Published 2001 by Thunder’s Mouth Press
- All Tomorrows Parties, Billy Name, Andy Warhol And The Factory
- Source D.I.Y. Punk Tees History And Fashion Lookbooks
- The 1970s punk youth culture and fashion lookbooks
- The Clash by Mick Jones, Paul Simonon, Topper Headon and Joe Strummer. Published 2008 by Atlantic Books
- The 1970’s The Clash Fashion Lookbooks, the only band that mattered
- Refashioning the future Buddha Jeans Gallery Google Arts & Culture
- The Encyclopedia of the 80s A decade of i-Deas. Compiled and produced by i-D magazine. Published by Penguin Books first published 1990
- Wear Me Fashion Graphics + Graphics Interaction. Editor and project coordinator Liz Farrelly. Published by Booth-Clibborn Editions 1995.
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