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Inorganic fibres are fibres produced from materials that are present in the Earth’s crust and is the name of a category of fibres called “inorganic. These fibres can easily be made from naturally occurring materials and are inorganic rather than polymeric. Examples of such fibres include asbestos, basalt, ceramics, glass, and metals.
Asbestos is a modified natural fibre. Long regarded as a wonder material for its good thermal and electrical insulation abilities, been recognized as a dangerous substance because of its tendency to cause lung cancer. It differs from other inorganic materials in the same category as glass fibres, carbon fibres, basalt fibres and ceramic fibres as it does not need any heat or chemical reactions to produce it. At first sight, it would appear as a desirable product. Nevertheless, the equipment needed for these purposes is heavy and can be dangerous; only a few eras considered suitable material unless other options, as in firefighters’ uniforms, foundry clothing and similar protective garments.
Basalt fibres made from rock solidified from volcanic lava are suggested by some as the alternative to glass. Until recently, used solely in the form of basalt ‘wool’ for thermal insulation purposes, however, new technology open for making them into thin wire fibres. The advantage of basalt fibres is the ability to be used with the extreme temperature range of – 200 to + 800 Celsius. One suggested application is as sewing threads for fabrics exposed to high temperatures or adverse chemical environments. Thus, the ecological expense of producing these fibres, stemming mainly from the high temperatures needed.
The use of carbon fibres has only become widespread over the past couple of decades or so, but their growth has been rapid since their inception. The complex series of processes and the inert atmospheres needed for carbon fibre production tend to make them expensive from an environmental standpoint.
Ceramics are the latest in a series of new materials earmarked for use as fibres. Many of them are oxides, with similar drawbacks as properties and drawbacks as glass, carbon and basalt fibres; usually have a very high melting temperature, which increases the difficulty of manufacture and hence the ecological impact. All these new fibres are ecologically very damaging in comparison with the more traditional ones. However, production is deemed necessary because of their highly unusual properties, such as heat resistance. Demand for such fibres comes from the space industry or the military that could not be met in any other way. However, it seems that the environment being sacrificed to meet a need that would not be regarded in many quarters as strictly essential.
Glass, existing in a wide range of types for several ends uses, is usually made by melting silica (sand material) at very high temperatures and adding to the melt the necessary fabrics. High temperatures always incur large energy costs. The extraction of metal oxides from minerals in which they are present in the ground and include purification process is a matter for concern regarding the use of energy, the need for heavy extraction or refining equipment and the production of large quantities of pollution.
Industrial ecology is a field of study that handles within the sustainability framework. The essence of industrial ecology is described as a system not in isolation from its surrounding systems, but in the plan with them. Furthermore, means by which humanity can rationally and deliberately approach and maintain sustainability, retain cultural, economic and technological evolution. Industrial ecology optimizes the total material’s cycle from virgin fabric, to finish, to the element, to the product, to be obsolete, and to final disposal. The optimized component includes factors such as resources, energy, and capital.
Green growth is according to the organization OECD (2011) described as “raising economic growth and development, while secure that natural assets continue to provide the resources and environmental services on which our well-being relies. It recommends the use of indicators to monitor the planning or implementation of the strategy in four main categories:
- economic and environmental assets
- economic opportunities and policy responses
- environmental quality of life
- environmental and resource productivity
The limited stocks of physical and biological resources found on earth are often described as “natural capital”; within this, terms provide nature a series of services that benefit society and the economy. These natural assets referred to as “natural capital.” The framework of Natural capital supply flows of ecosystem services and helps highlight the role of nature compared with other forms of capital (financial or manufactured capital). Nature capital is not only a value for humans but roles and functions for other species; in addition, it communicates the value or benefits of nature to mankind natural capital is nonetheless, a useful concept to communicate the value or benefits of nature to mankind. More about Natural Capital
Human capital generally refers to the well-being, health and productive potential of individual people and includes physical and mental health, education, motivation, and professional skills. Human capital elements do not only contribute to a happy and healthy society, but also improve the opportunities for economic development through a productive workforce
Man-made capital (manufactured)
Man-made (manufactured) capital is a term used to describe goods used to produce other goods and services, such as machines, tools, buildings and infrastructure and can also include “financial capital’”( money and other economic assets).
Social capital related to human well-being but on a societal rather than individual level (human capital describe well-being on an individual level). It consists of the social networks that support an efficient, cohesive society and facilitate social and intellectual interactions among its members. Social capital is a framework of social trust, norms, and networks that people can draw upon to solve common problems and create social cohesion, e.g. neighborhood associations, civic organizations. See illustrations etc. in the main dictionary.
Community Development Carbon Fund (CDCF ) set up by the World Bank, the CDCF provides carbon finance to projects in the poorer areas of the developing world. It supports projects that combine community development attributes with emissions reductions to create ‘development plus carbon’ credits.