Chromosomes is a term used on a package of several distinct strands of DNA often found in the genome. Each of these chromatin packages is called a chromosome.
The genetic code is a term used to describe the sequences of the genome. More specifically, the code whereby specific amino acids are represented in the form of three sequential DNA bases.
The genome is a term used on the entire complement of genetic information; all the DNA in a cell (some organisms encode their genome in RNA).
Proteins are large molecules consisting of chains of amino acids, which are essential components of the structure and function of all organisms.